The Moscow City Court was established on Dec. 16, 1932.
The Moscow City Court has a presidium whose objectives include rectifying judicial errors that the board of justices failed to timely correct at the appeals stage, as well as examining summary reviews of court practice, crime statistics, reports on the court's activities and other issues.
The court presidium and its chairperson are authorized to approve the composition of the boards of justices in criminal and civil cases, which are headed by chairpersons.
The boards of justices consist of several panels.
The Moscow City Court boards of justices consider cases as the first instance court and the second appeals instance. By reviewing appeals as the second instance, the boards of justices at the Moscow City Court oversee the activities of district courts in Moscow.
The Moscow City Court considers the most important and intricate criminal and civil cases referred by governing laws to its jurisdiction.
The most crucial event for administering justice in Russia was judicial reform and its main achievement was the establishment of an independent judiciary.
The reform has upheld the high status of judges and firmly guaranteed judges' independence. The Federal Law On the Status of Judges incorporates practically all the positive experience of the world’s democracies in giving substance to the principles of judges’ self-reliance and independence.
As a country integrated into the international legal environment, Russia has recognized the European Court of Human Rights’ jurisdiction that allowed it to expand the judicial protection of Russian citizens’ rights and freedoms. Russia will also now have to comply with higher standards of justice and meet more stringent requirements regarding the timeframe of legal proceedings.