Mass killer Anders Breivik sentencing - live text coverage
MOSCOW, August 24 - RAPSI. RAPSI hosted a live text coverage of the verdict handed down Friday against confessed mass killer Anders Behring Breivik.
While Breivik has confessed to having killed eight people in an Oslo bombing, and to having gunned down another 69 at a nearby youth camp in 2011, he has refrained from admitting guilt for the crimes that he has been charged with in this connection. In the mind of the 33-year-old Norwegian - whose sanity has posed a central issue throughout the trial - he was acting in “self-defense,” his actions having been necessitated by what he perceived as the threat of multiculturalism in Norway. As such, he has requested acquittal.
Breivik was arrested on the scene of the youth camp massacre and was formally charged in March with acts of terrorism and voluntary manslaughter.
The central issue to be resolved during the course of the proceedings was that of whether Breivik is of sound mind. From the start, Breivik has insisted on his own sanity.
Please find the video broadcast here.
20:43 That wraps up our live text broadcast of the hearing. Thank you for joining us!
20:38 The victims' team lauds the court decision for having devastatingly but adequately portrayed the horrific and premeditated nature of his crimes. They explain that this will go a long way toward militating against his release after 21 years.
20:37 Asked if they feel Breivik is being sufficiently punished considering the poshness of his isolation cell, the victims' team emphasized that Breivik realizes he got the maximum possible sentence.
20:35 Asked if Breivik ultimately "got his way," the victims' team explained that "his way" would really be acquittal on the basis of legal necessity- so no, he did not.
20:31 Asked about prosecution's quick decision not to appeal, the defense team explained that this is a very special case. He has too much respect for the prosecutor's office to speculate about the rapidity of the decision.
20:30 The defense team is being very careful to distance itself from appearing to in any way support Breivik's ideological views.
20:29 Breivik receives letters and mail expressing support for him in prison.
20:27 The defense team explains that it has not yet considered whether it will work with Breivik again if he were to appeal despite the general belief that he won't. They say it's too hypothetical of a question.
20:26 The defense team explains that it is happy that the trial is over--that they were not victorious, but that they will drop their briefcases off at the office tonight satisfied with a job well done.
20:25 Technically speaking, Breivik still has the option of appealing. Still, he has firmly stated his intention not to appeal.
20:24 The defense team has no concrete agreements to work with Breivik in the future. The defense attorney says that he has a purely legal obligation to Breivik, and that he has never had any intention of disseminating his message.
20:21 A journalist said many had heard Breivik apologize that he didn't kill more victims. The defense attorney explained that he heard what she (the journalist) heard, thus acknowledging that he did say that before being cut off by the judge.
20:20 When asked whether this would be the end of court proceedings, or whether there was a possibility that this will be appealed to the European Court of Human Rights, the defense acknowledged the possibility but expressed their doubts that such would occur.
20:19 The defense refused to tell what Breivik had planned to say in his apology to militant nationalists that was cut short by the judge.
20:19 When asked about a dialogue between Breivik and his attorneys after the judgment was issued, the attorney explained that Breivik does not acknowledge Norwegian court. Thus it is difficult for him to concretely express his refusal to appeal.
20:17 The defense team will now take questions.
20:15 When asked about the precedential value of this case, the prosecution explains that the case has shown that there is a need for a thorough review of the use of psychiatrists in criminal proceedings.
20:14 The prosecution describes the trial as having been demanding. They have had to make some unpopular decisions, including during closing arguments. Still, they feel it has been a timely, dignified, and "good" trial, if the word "good" can even be used in such a context.
20:11 The prosecution clarifies that they don't disagree with the court on any legal basis, but merely on a factual basis. Thus prosecution is not concerned that the interests of victims will be undermined by their decision not to appeal.
20:10 The prosecution explained its decision not to appeal with reference to the toll it would take on the victims and society in general.
20:08 Asked if they're upset that Breivik got a prison sentence rather than compulsory psychiatric care, the prosecution said that they don't view this as defeat. They are not opposed to seeing Breivik do jail time.
20:06 The judgment will not be considered final until the appeals period has passed, even though both parties have expressed their preferences not to appeal the judgment.
20:04 The prosecution ackgnowledged that there's some risk that Breivik could appeal despite the court's acceptance of his declination because he preceeded the relevant statement with a rant against the court's legitimacy. Still, they think this is unlikely based on Breivik's clear statement that he will not appeal.
20:03 Jounalists are voicing concern over the sense that Breivik "got his way" in escaping an insanity designation. Prosecutors emphasize that the court did not do anything in order to satisfy Breivik's desires.
20:02 The prosecution claims that they have applied more importance to the first expert report--which classified Breivik as criminally insane--than the District Court did. Still they have decided to accept the court's decision.
19:56 The prosecution is now delivering a press conference. They explain that the court has interpreted the facts differently than them, particularly with regard to whether Breivik was criminally sane on July 22, 2011.
19:55 The prosecution will not appeal the judgment.
19:29 The court enters Breivik's decision not to appeal. The court has been adjourned.
19:28 The defense attorney speaking with Breivik on the judge's request looks exasperated.
19:28 The judge will not allow him to apologize to any parties outside the courtroom.
19:27 He would like to apologize to all militants in Europe.
19:26 Breivik is now speaking. He does not recognize the court because it received its mandate from a political party that supports multiculturalism. He is extremely composed and calm. He says he cannot legitimize the court with an appeal.
19:25 Breivik can appeal within two weeks, or he can accept the judgment.
19:24 The prosecutors have not moved for the defendant to cover court costs. The court can still order such payment, but they note that he cannot now, nor will he be able to in the future, cover such costs.
19:23 For the protection of society, Breivik must receive the maximum imposable sentence.
19:21 After 21 years, Breivik will be 53. If released then, he would be released into a still multicultural Norway. He would still have the will and capacity to carry out brutal attacks. The types of pathology he has exhibited are not usually responsive to psychological treatment. Considering all of these points, preventative detention will be an appropriate sentence.
19:19 The level of cruelty exhibited by Breivik's actions is "without parallel in Norwegian history."
19:18 The court further points to Breivik's belief that violence is necessary in order to advance his ideological views. Toward this end, Judge Lund is describing the complexity and severity of his attacks.
19:16 In justifying its stance that Breivik poses an iminent risk of repeat offenses, the court is describing statements Breivik has made about his desire to blow up the royal palace, inflict terrorist attacks on various media outlets, and kill journalists.
19:15 Preventative detention is available when a serious crime has been committed and when there is an imminent risk that the perpetrator will commit another such crime again. The court is not in doubt that both of these elements have been satisfied. Murder and attempted murder are both serious crimes, and there is an imminent risk at the present time of sentencing that he will commit similar crimes in the future.
19:14 The court is now describing its sentencing decision. The defendant is criminally sane, and thus will be subject to punishment. The maximum sentence is 21 years. When prison is not considered sufficient to protect society, one can be sentenced to preventative detention instead of standard imprisonment.
19:12 In light of the preceeding discussion, the Court holds beyond a reasonable doubt that Breivik is not psychotic.
19:11 The Court is explaining that the extremely violent nature of a crime cannot be construed in itself as symptomatic of psychosis. Although Breivik is a special case, there is no reason to deviate from standard legal norms in determining his diagnosis.
19:06 The court is continuing to explain its understanding of Breivik's sanity.
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18:30 The court is on another short break.
18:25 The defendant has exhibited symptoms of various personality disorders.
18:22 While the Knights Templar likely does not exist, the court believes that the defendant used it in order to suit his desired outcome- including as a means of instilling fear in society. Thus it is not necessarily a delusion.
18:20 The court maintains that all purported neologisms - all of Breivik's odd uses of language - can be explained in the context of his extreme political views, rather than in the context of psychotic delusions.
18:19 The court is describing various instances when Breivik modified his comments and responses to various people in order to illustrate his soundness of mind. Psychotic patients often vigorously defend their delusions, whereas Breivik has downplayed his alleged delusions in certain circumstances, such as early police interviews.
18:14 Experts believe that Breivik's economic delusions are inconsistent with the diagnostic requirements. Furthermore, the experts believe that there is an ideological subculture that shares his extreme political views, and thus they are not delusions. His use of the word "we" instead of "I" indicates his belief that he speaks on behalf of others who possess similar beliefs.
18:11 Paranoid psychosis involves, among other symptoms, grandiose and erotic delusions.
18:10 The court will now consider whether Breivik suffered from paranoid psychosis at the time of the acts.
18:02 The judge now explains that he had stamina, control of his impulses, and good cognitive functions. The court believes that considering his relative ability to function over the past several years is difficult to square with untreated paranoid schizophrenia. He dressed himself well, paid rent, and scaled the Masonic hierarchy.
17:58 The court futher believes that he had a unique relationship with his mother.
17:57 The court believes that a form of gaming addiction caused him to move back in with his mother and withdraw from his social and professional life.
17:54 The judge is now discussing whether Breivik exhibited social or occupational withdrawal symptoms. The experts who found Breivik mentally unsound referred to the defendant's generally reclusive behaviors following his decision to move back in with his mother in 2006. The experts who found Breivik mentally sound agreed that he had acted reclusively, but held that he stayed in contact with friends right up until the terrorist attacks were carried out. The latter experts admitted that he spent a great deal of time playing video games, but held that he maintained something of an active social life by way of those video games.
17:52 The court will now consider whether Breivik exhibited blunted emotional responses. The experts who found Breivik insane refer to his lack of emotional response to autopsy reports and witness testimonies detailing his horrific crimes. The court noted that Breivik cried in the courtroom when his own film was exhibited, apparently because he was so "touched" by it. The experts who refute Breivik's insanity maintain his emotional apathy is symptomatic of a pathological personality, not schizophrenia.
17:47 The court maintains that Breivik has not exhibited neologoisms, which usually entail the use of incomprehensible language. One set of experts referred to his coining of various unique terms constituted the use of neologisms. The other experts found that many of Breivik's unique word combinations can be found in use among right-wing extremist groups, World of Warcraft, and other such sources that Breivik was previously involved with. The court agreed with the latter analysis.
17:43 The court will now address whether neologisms were among Breivik's symptoms. Throughout the course of the discussion of its determination of Breivik's sanity, the court has been moving back and forth between the reports of both sides of the conflict between experts on the question of Breivik's sanity.
17:42 Court is back in session.
17:21 The court has announced another 15-minute break.
17:20 The court does not believe that Breivik's delusions satisfied all relevant diagnostic criteria.
17:16 The court's understanding is that Breivik's talk of civil war, etc. can be considered in a political context, consistent with the rhetoric of political extremist groups.
17:14 Breivik has been heavily involved in politics from early on. He has for years been involved with extreme right-wing political groups. In such circles, hyperbolic references to war and civil war are fairly common place. This hyperbolic language cannot be seen as universally delusional when used by extremist political groups.
17:10 Experts specifically couldn't agree on whether Breivik suffered from persistent bizarre delusions. Those who believed he is schizophrenic cited Breivik's belief "that he is to save us all from doom in the battle of good versus evil." This was particularly problematic insofar as he believed that it was in his power to decide who should live and who should die. The experts who disagreed believed that his views were extreme, but that they could be contextualized with a view to extreme political beliefs in Europe.
17:07 The judge is now discussing the diagnostic criteria for paranoid schizophrenia, which include paranoia and a belief that one is of noble lineage. The experts disagreed on whether Breivik met the criteria for paranoid schizophrenia.
17:05 RAPSI has just received information on the time served element of Breivik's sentence. The reason he has been granted 445 days of time served even though he was only arrested 399 days ago is because each day spent in isolation counts as two days in terms of time served. Thank you Norwegian criminal attorney Bernt Birkeland for the clarification!
17:00 Experts that declared Breivik was insane are describing his delusions in the context of his role within the Knights Templar. They are described as bizarre, grandiose delusions. He believes he is a crusader and that he has the right to declare who lives and who dies. The court is continuing to detail the plethora of Breivik's delusions of grandeur.
16:57 Experts described the following symptoms of psychosis: impaired, erroneous, or failing perception of reality; hallucinations; delusions; disturbing thought processes; and delusions. Other symptoms include negligent care of self and others, and depersonalization.
16:52 An initial expert examination led to the determination that Breivik was insane. Other experts disagreed.
16:51 The judge will now discuss the work and conclusions of psychiatrists in this case.
16:49 The court doesn't care that Breivik wants to be considered sane- they believe in equality before the law, not special treatment.
16:48 The court further believes it would be wrong to subject a person to compulsory psychiatric care if such is unnecessary for a given defendant at present. Dangerous individuals can be kept in psychiatric wards for years following their psychological rehabilitation.
16:46 Punishment is a reproach that gives an indication of society's reproach for a criminal's action. At the same time, it's a chance to allow the criminal to rehabilitate himself and return as a functioning member of society. It would be wrong to too easily dispose of punishment as an option given its message and its benefits.
16:43 The courts and lawmakers have agreed that psychotic criminals should not be head criminally liable for their actions, but have differed with regard to the burden of proof required in determining criminal sanity at the time a given offense was committed.
16:41 The judge is reviewing Norwegian case law relating to evidentiary requirements for assessing criminal insanity.
16:38 The question for the court was whether Breivik was diagnosable as psychotic at the time he committed the attacks. Diagnosable psychosis is legal psychosis in Norway.
16:35 Psychiatrists have made clear that the crime itself should not impact a determination of psychosis.
16:32 Psychosis is determined by the way psychiatrists define psychosis. Currently, that means a lack of emotional and mental control, while intellectual functions may be intact. It involves a lack of capacity to respond appropriately to external occurrences. The key criterion of psychosis is the defendant's inability to make a realistic assessment of his own connection with reality.
16:31 The judge is describing criminal insanity as prescribed by the Criminal Code. The concept of insanity was replaced by psychotic. A person who was psychotic at the time of the commission of the act shall not be deemed responsible for their crimes.
16:30 The hearing has resumed.
16:10 Judge Lund has called a 15-minute recess, after which the question of Breivik's sanity will be discussed.
16:09 Judge Lund is now addressing Breivik's acquittal claim. The claim is inadmissible.
16:08 The court finds it has been proven behind any reasonable doubt that Breivik had the appropriate mens rea as described in the criminal code.
16:08 The intentions behind both terrorist act was to provoke fear throughout society. He further intended to derail governmental function.
16:06 The court notes that a determination of whether attempted crimes can be considered primary crimes in this case is irrelevant.
16:05 The court interprets the indictment as having featured attempted murder as part of the overall terrorist act.
16:04 Breivik describes having carefully planned the Utoya massacre, and the attempted murders were carried out according to a premeditated plan. They were conducted in a particularly cruel way, and thus under aggravating circumstances.
16:02 The court thus holds that charges in the indictment relating to the Utoya murders were satisfied.
16:01 Likewise, the Utoya Massacre was well planned. The defendant described his numerous gunshots at victims as security shots, to ensure that the victims were killed. He has admitted that his original plan was to scare as many of the youths as possible into the water causing those escaping to drown en masse, in order to use the water "as a method of mass destruction."
16:00 With regard to the government district, Breivik has admitted to the actions giving rise to the charges. He admitted that he intended all of the murders in the government district with premeditation. These murders were carried out under aggravating circumstances and in a particularly cruel manner.
15:56 Terror intent requires a defendant to have been reasonably sure that his act would disrupt a function of vital importance to society, and the intent must be to effect such disruption in a serious capacity, with an eye to the severity and long-term nature of this disruption.
15:53 The court will now describe the legal bases of its sentencing decision. He explains that acts of terrorism are punishable by upwards of 21 years when they are carried out with specific intent.
15:51 The testimony of one survivor describes having seen a young boy screaming to Breivik that his dad had been killed, and she assumed that police had arrived. She was then shot in the stomach.
15:47 Judge Lund has described several accounts where while pairs of best friends attempted to escape together, one was shot dead and the other survived. In one case, the murder victim's body collapsed onto the survivor.
15:45 He describes one survivor's testimony, which recounts having watched a girl approach the uniformed defendant. The defendant turned to her and shot her at close range. The victim then ran into the water. The defendant stood on the shore yelling that he would kill all of those swimming to escape. The victim describes Breivik's face as having turned red, and his voice as having cracked as he screamed that he would kill them all.
15:43 Judge Lund is describing the treatment these victims have undergone since the incident. Many were hospitalized for months after the massacre, and many are still receiving treatment.
15:39 According to the judge's accounts, many of those who survived did so by sheer luck. Some played dead, and others hid after having been shot.
15:35 Breivik's face remains emotionless as the judge details the removal of portions of the muscles of one of his young victims.
15:30 Many of those present in the courtroom are describing the atmosphere as depressing. Some of those present are in tears as they listen to the judge's account of the unthinkable details of the Utoya Island ordeal.
15:26 He describes a scene upon the arrival of the police officers where victims who had survived gunshot wounds thought that the real police officers were working with Breivik. Upon their arrival, gunshot wound survivors feared for their lives.
15:23 The judge describes one victim who was shot. Afterward, Breivik approached him and asked in a kindly voice whether he had seen the gunman. The victim sensed that it was a set up and dove into the water. Breivik then shot at him from the surface, hitting him again.
15:20 The judge describes a victim who attemtped to protect his girlfriend from gunfire in a small cafe. His girlfriend was killed. He survived a gunshot wound to the face, and has been mostly unable to work since the incident.
15:17 Breivik remains calm as the judge describes these horrifying accounts.
15:14 The judge is continuing to recount details of injuries sustained by survivors of the attack on Utoya Island.
15:10 During the break Breivik told his lawyers that he is satisfied with the sentence and does not intend to appeal. Defense attorney Geir Lippestad in turn told journalists that they will not appeal the court's decision on the defendant's sanity.
15:07 The judge is describing chaotic scenes of youths running from Breivik as he shot at them. According to the judge, Breivik shot at nearly every person he saw.
15:05 Court is back in session. The judges will now describe each of the attempted murder counts. The judge explains that it was Breivik's goal to kill everyone at Utoya. With a few exceptions, he shot everyone he saw.
14:19 The hearing has been adjourned until 13:00 Oslo time/15:00 Moscow time (GMT +4).
14:18 Breivik was arrested finally at 18:34 on Utoya Island.
14:18 Two victims died while trying to escape Breivik. One victim drowned while trying to swim away, and another died from a fall off a cliff.
14:15 At 18:24, he placed another call to the police, again offering to surrender. He then carried on shooting.
14:12 Breivik appears disinterested as the judge describes his actions at that particular scene. His eyes are darting around shiftily and he's sipping from a mug in front of him.
14:10 The defendant then approached a group of victims hiding at a pump house, told them he was a police officer, and offered to transport them to safety. When one youth asked for identification, he began firing. He killed 14 youths at the scene.
14:09 After calling the police, Breivik proceeded to kill eight youths who had gathered by the shore. The judge is now describing each of those murders. The usual trends--numerous gunshot wounds and shots to the victim's heads--were sustained.
14:07 Notably, the defendant called the police at 18:00, stating that he was willing to give himself up. This means after 39 minutes of shooting, the defendant was willing to voluntarily stopped and called the relevant authorities to do so. As noted earlier, police would not arrive for another 34 minutes.
14:06 He then fired on both a school house and a boat filled with youths attempting to escape. Fortunately, he did not kill anyone in these attempts.
14:05 He then attacked a group of youths he discovered hiding in the forest nearby.
14:03 He then found several youths hiding between Lovers Path and the shore. He shot and killed most of them, sustaining the trends of numerous gun shots at each victim, including gunshots to the head in most cases.
13:59 He then went to "Lovers Path," a pathway where he killed 15 people, including 10 of 11 youths lying together in a cluster. He tried to confuse the youths there by asking them where the perpetrator was. As with the previous scenes described, he seems to have shot each of his victims no less than twice. He shot most, if not all, of those on Lovers Path in the head.
13:56 The judge is now describing a similar scene in a larger nearby corridor. As with the previous seen, none of the youths killed seem to have been shot only once. He left the corridor and then re-entered in order to kill one last person, shooting him several times.
13:52 The judge is describing a scene in a corridor where seven youth campers were shot dead, and where many others fled or hid behind a piano to avoid being seen. He is describing the scene in vivid detail. Many of those killed in the corridor were born between 1993-1994, and were shot between three and eight times each and were killed almost immediately.
13:49 Each victim the judge has described so far was shot numerous times to vital zones, such as the head, chest, back, and abdomen. Most described so far died instantly.
13:47 After the shooting began, a camp resident shouted from within a window to inquire as to what Breivik was doing. He said he was a police officer and was there to protect them and urged them to come outside. He then killed them.
13:46 A security guard was shot five times in the head, chest, abdomen, and back.
13:45 The first murders were committed around 17:21. The first two victims were killed instantly by numerous gunshot wounds.
13:43 The judge will now describe each of the Utoya Island murders that Breivik has been charged with. Most of those killed were youth participants in the summer camp.
13:42 Local residents attempted to rescue the campers, and some of them were shot at in the process as well.
13:41 The judge is describing the mental damages that have pervaded among camp inhabitants in the aftermath of the attack.
13:39 Shortly before he shot and killed his first victim, the camp residents had been informed of the government bombing. When shots were fired, panic engulfed the camp. The judge described the scenes as heartbreaking, describing "the living and the dead lying side by side." He described calls made by those fleeing to say goodbye to their loved ones.
13:38 He was not apprehended by police until 18:34. He used the intervening period to fire at the camp inhabitants. He killed 67 people by gunfire, and two others died while fleeing.
13:37 He brought with him a semi-automatic rifle, a pistol, ammunition, smoke grenades, and other equipment. He arrived at 17:17.
13:36 Before entering Utoya Island, he exchanged his bullet-proof vest for a vest filled with ammunition. When entering Utoya Island, he showed his police identification. Security allowed him to pass. He was asked to cover up his rifle. He carried a long box.
13:35 The judge is now going to discuss the events at Utoya Island. Breivik thought that his explosion had failed, and decided to kill everyone he could at the ruling Labor Party's Utoya Island-based summer youth camp.
13:32 The judge is now describing the consequence that the attacks had on the work of the government. In order to sustain government function in the aftermath of the explosion, a great deal of budgetary funds had to be spent on temporary facilities, etc. It will take upwards of a decade and a great deal of money to create a new government district.
13:30 The judge just finished describing a university student who had been working as a government receptionist. In addition to having sustained a coma, she suffered partial amnesia. She is now completing her secondary education once again in preparation to start her university degree in Political Science over again. This is only one example of numerous horrifying injuries.
13:26 You may watch the live video broadcast of the sentencing in English here.
13:24 Some experts questioned by journalists during the break are certain that the prosecution will appeal the verdict insisting on Breivik's insanity.
13:23 The court is detailing devastating wounds and injuries, resulting in numerous operations, scars, and at least one amputation.
13:20 Nine people were seriously injured in the government explosion. All but two testified in court, and those two provided testimony to be read in court. The court will now go into detail on the physical injuries. They will not detail the psychological difficulties resulting from the attack on behalf of these victims, but they note that such difficulties are serious.
13:19 We are back in session.
13:10 Meanwhile in Russia, head of Moscow’s Chamber of Advocates has lauded the decision as a “victory of law over the emotions."
13:06 After the break, the court is expected to announce why they've determined that Breivik is of sound mind. Breivik must be thrilled at the finding. He has made his faith in his own sanity clear throughout the course of the trial. And in a letter to Norwegian tabloid Verdans Gang, he lamented that being placed in a psych ward--the consequence if he'd been found insane--would have been a "fate worse than death."
12:58 The judge announced a 15-minute break.
12:57 The eighth, not a government employee, who was passing through the area on her way home from work, died immediately of massive injuries to the head and throat caused by the shockwave and splints and objects that hit him.
12:56 The seventh was a restaurant owner who was coincidentally passing by, died immediately of massive injuries to the head and body caused by the shockwave and splints and objects that hit him.
12:55 The sixth, died immediately of massive injuries to the head and body caused by the shockwave and splints and objects that hit her.
12:55 The fifth, died immediately by excessive injuries to the chest and abdomen due to splints that hit her.
12:54 The fourth, an employee of the Office of the Prime Minister, was killed by splints that hit her neck as a result of the explosion.
12:54 The third was entering a government building and was killed immediately on impact.
12:53 The second, who worked for the Justice Ministry's international department, was killed instantly by splints caused by the explosion.
12:52 The first, a Justice Ministry official was on holiday, but had stopped by the office to drop off a manuscript at the worst possible time. He was killed by the bomb instantly.
12:51 The court will now give an account of each individual murder.
12:50 The attack has fostered mental issues among many victims. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and various types of anxiety disorders are among the psychological ailments that may be expected as a result of the trauma.
12:49 Dead and injured people were found both inside and outside the buildings. Many injured people managed to escape the buildings, but search and rescue work was made difficult due to the extensive damages.
12:48 Several government buildings were completely destroyed by the bomb, especially those surrounding the blast. None collapsed, fortunately.
12:47 The explosion occurred at 15:25. Eight people were killed, and many were injured--including several who were injured seriously.
12:46 Closed-circuit television footage shows Breivik parking near the central Oslo bomb compound. He lit a fuse with an approximately seven-minute burn time, and then left on foot toward his getaway car. He was wearing a uniform that looked like the local police uniform. He had a pistol in a holster on his thigh. The explosion occurred at 15:25
12:45 The judges will now discuss the terrorist attack.
The July 22 bloodshed
12:45 He played approximately 130 hours of the video game Delta Force in preparation.
12:43 He meditated in order to de-emotionalize himself. Breivik says it was the same technique used by Japanese warriors. It is unclear whether he was referring to ninjas or samurai. This meditation technique involved a mix of visualization and soundtrack music.
12:43 A specialist found that Breivik was under a slight stimulant influence. The possibility that it may have caused aggression or mania cannot be ruled out.
12:40 He took three courses of anabolic steroids in the leadup to the attack. He worked out at a fitness center and supplemented his training by hiking with a stone-filled backback. He took a stimulant in the days leading to the attack. The stimulant was a mix of caffeine, ephederine, and aspirin. He practiced shooting at a shooting range.
12:37 The morning of the attack, he paid a parking ticket and uploaded the film: Knights Templar 2083: movie trailer on two websites. He explained that the film was a short version of the manifesto. He then attempted to send it to more than 8,000 emails. It was received by at least 958 of those. He gathered some of the 8,109 email addresses by adding random friends on Facebook.
12:36 The night before the attack, he stayed at his mother's apartment in Oslo. That night, he prepared to distribute his manifesto.
12:35 The bomb was made by Breivik from a mix of chemical fertilizer, diesel, and aluminum. 43 purchases between September 2010-July 2011 linked to the manufacture of the bomb. The defendant spent several weeks building the bomb. Its manufacturing process has been verified by police. He used a food processor to manufacture it.
12:33 Two rifles, one pistol, one shotgun, and ammunition were purchased to carry out his attacks. Police have identified 22 purchases linked to the weapons, mostly between May 2010-June 2011. He established a company earlier on, likely as a means of puchasing equipment for the bomb detonated in downtown Oslo. He also rented a farm in order to build the bomb.
12:31 Breivik drained his bank accounts and used ten credit cards in order to fund the attacks.
12:30 A new judge will now discuss Breivik's preparations for the attack.
Getting prepared for terrorist attacks
12:30 The judge is explaining that while some others have shared Breivik's concerns regarding multiculturalism, most do not feel armed combat is the solution.
12:29 Breivik believes the UN Declaration on Human Rights grants him the right to kill in order to preserve his culture.
12:28 By way of his role in the Knights Templar, he has granted himself license to kill in order to save his people.
12:27 Breivik believes women should not work, but rather should devote their lives to reproducing ethnic Norwegian babies.
12:26 The judge will now discuss Breivik's political views. He believes ethnic Norwegians are in the process of being exterminated, and that the ruling Labor Party is responsible for this insofar as their rule has fostered multiculturalism in Norway. He believes these multiculturalism endeavors are kept clandestine by the government and the media. He attributes this to a Marxist cultural revolution.
12:25 The court has found no basis on which to believe in the existence of the Knights Templar. This will be touched on in the discussion of his sanity.
12:24 The Knights Templar establishes its own standards of justice, to the extent of deciding who should be killed.
12:23 Breivik claims that the Knights Templar consists of members from many different countries. He has stated that it is a network of militant nationalist activists.
12:22 Breivik claims that NATO's intervention in Serbia in defense of Kosovo was the "straw that broke the camel's back." He claims that his trip to Liberia was actually intended to facilitate a meeting between him and a Serb nationalist, rather than to purchase blood diamonds.
12:20 The judge will discuss the Knights Templar - a group to which Breivik has claimed membership since his arrest. His connection with the group has been key to questions of Breivik's sanity. Whether the group exists is questionable. The court questioned whether the group was a product of his delusion.
12:19 The manifesto depicts Islam as a violence-oriented ideology. Much of the manifesto was written by other writers, and merely collected by Behring. Book 3 of the manifesto, however, was written by Breivik.
12:17 The judge will now discuss the events leading to the terrorist attack. She is discussing the manifesto that he published in the days leading to the attack. It is called 2083: A Declaration of European Independence and can be found in full online.
Breivik's mysterious world
12:16 Breivik is believed to have played World of Warcraft an average of 16 hours a day once he moved back in with his mother in 2006. The judge believes 2006 is a crucial year in a consideration of his sanity.
12:14 The judge is now describing Behring's profound love for the video game World of Warcraft. Toward this end, she is giving the court a rundown on what World of Warcraft involves. Breivik's most recent World of Warcraft name was "Conservatism."
12:13 According to the judge, Behring has not received any considerable income since 2006.
12:12 Breivik appears to be quite satisfied. He is smiling at the judge.
12:11 His most profitable business initiative involved the sale of false educational diplomas and required money laundering in order to avoid taxation.
12:11 She is describing a telecommunications job Breivik held, where he was promoted to team leader. During that time, he founded and ran various types of companies, including a number of unsuccessful ones. Interestingly, he purchased raw diamonds in Libya as part of one such business initiative.
12:09 Court has reverted to 2006 onward on the question of criminal sanity.
12:07 The judge is reading a biography of Breivik's life, describing his childhood in detail.
Norwegian shooter's background: video games addict
12:03 Breivik has been sentenced to 21 years in prison [which can be extended for as long as he is considered a threat to society], with 445 days considered as time served. The judge has found that his mental state was sound; he is sane.
12:00 The hearing has begun.
12:00 The actors have entered the courtroom and the journalists have taken their seats. The courtroom was refurbished especially for the Breivik trial in order to provide increased security measures.
11:50 You can also stay up to date on what’s going on in the courtroom via our Twitter account!
11:43 Breivik has arrived at the courthouse. An armored vehicle arrived through a special tunnel at the back door. Dozens of police cars are surrounding the courthouse.
11:35 The main players have arrived in court. Journalists are trying to sort out what sentence will be handed down. So far no one dares guess what to expect, but everyone hopes the verdict will be well balanced.
11:30 Good morning! Anders Behring Breivik will be sentenced today in Norway's capital city of Oslo. This begins RAPSI's live coverage from the District Court of Oslo, where in about half an hour the verdict and sentencing hearing in one of the most high-profile trials in post-World War II European history. Today's reporting will be conducted by Anastasia Yakonyuk and Ingrid Burke.