MOSCOW, July 18 - RAPSI. The Federation Council ratified a treaty on Russia-United States cooperation in adoption after lengthy negotiations on Wednesday.

Work on the treaty began after a number of incidents occurred involving Russian-born children adopted by U.S. families - specifically after an American foster mother sent her seven-year-old adopted son back to Russia alone on a plane with a "refusal note" in spring 2010.

Many State Duma deputies and high-ranking officials have repeatedly voiced the need for the quickest ratification of the treaty to benefit Russian children.

The document was signed by both parties in Washington on July 13, 2011.

The treaty outlines the adoption procedure and mechanism for controlling foster children's living conditions and education.

A child may only be adopted by foreign nationals if it has proven impossible to find a family for him in Russia. Adoption is also only allowed through an authorized organization unless the child is adopted by his relatives.

The treaty has similarly established the procedure for an adopted child to receive foreign and preserve Russian citizenship.